Property accessors

Property accessors provide access to an object's properties by using the dot notation or the bracket notation.

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One can think of an object as an associative array (a.k.a. map, dictionary, hash, lookup table). The keys in this array are the names of the object's properties.

There are two ways to access properties: dot notation and bracket notation.

Dot notation

In the object.propertyName syntax, the propertyName must be a valid JavaScript identifier which can also be a reserved word. For example, object.$1 is valid, while object.1 is not.

const variable = object.propertyName;
object.propertyName = value;
const object = {};
object.$1 = "foo";
console.log(object.$1); // 'foo'
const object = {};
object.1 = 'bar'; // SyntaxError
console.log(object.1); // SyntaxError

Here, the method named createElement is retrieved from document and is called.


If you use a method for a numeric literal, and the numeric literal has no exponent and no decimal point, you should leave white-space(s) before the dot preceding the method call, so that the dot is not interpreted as a decimal point.

77 .toExponential();
// or
// or
// or
// or
// because 77. === 77.0, no ambiguity

Bracket notation

In the object[expression] syntax, the expression should evaluate to a string or Symbol that represents the property's name. So, it can be any string literal, for example, including '1foo', '!bar!', or even ' ' (a space).

const variable = object[propertyName];
object[propertyName] = value;

This does the exact same thing as the previous example.


A space before bracket notation is allowed.

document ["createElement"]("pre");

Passing expressions that evaluate to property name will do the same thing as directly passing the property name.

const key = "name";
const getKey = () => "name";
const Obj = { name: "Michel" };

Obj["name"]; // returns "Michel"
Obj[key]; // evaluates to Obj["name"], and returns "Michel"
Obj[getKey()]; // evaluates to Obj["name"], and returns "Michel"

However, beware of using square brackets to access properties whose names are given by external input. This may make your code susceptible to object injection attacks.

Property names

Property names are string or Symbol. Any other value, including a number, is coerced to a string. This outputs 'value', since 1 is coerced into '1'.

const object = {};
object["1"] = "value";

This also outputs 'value', since both foo and bar are converted to the same string.

const foo = { uniqueProp: 1 };
const bar = { uniqueProp: 2 };
const object = {};
object[foo] = "value";

Method binding

It's typical when speaking of an object's properties to make a distinction between properties and methods. However, the property/method distinction is little more than a convention. A method is a property that can be called (for example, if it has a reference to a Function instance as its value).

A method is not bound to the object that it is a property of. Specifically, this is not fixed in a method and does not necessarily refer to the object containing the method. Instead, this is "passed" by the function call. See the reference for this.


Bracket notation vs. eval()

JavaScript novices often make the mistake of using eval() where the bracket notation can be used instead.

For example, the following syntax is often seen in many scripts.

const x = eval(`document.forms.form_name.elements.${strFormControl}.value`);

eval() is slow and should be avoided whenever possible. Also, strFormControl would have to hold an identifier, which is not required for names and ids of form controls. It is better to use bracket notation instead:

const x = document.forms.form_name.elements[strFormControl].value;


ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-property-accessors

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also